Theories of Emotions In this lesson, we will be learning about theories of emotions. He complained about having to complete the questionnaire he had been asked to do, indicating that the questions were stupid and too personal. As previously stated, the viscera are composed of and glands, which are typically sluggish in their responses. The Two-Factor Theory of Emotion Whereas the James-Lange theory proposes that each emotion has a different pattern of arousal, the t w o - fa c tor th e oryof emotion takes the opposite approach, arguing that the arousal that we experience is basically the same in every emotion, and that all emotions including the basic emotions are differentiated only by our cognitive appraisal of the source of the arousal. Then right before the vision experiment was to begin, the participants were asked to indicate their current emotional states on a number of scales. However, researchers discovered that even those with muscle paralysis and lack of sensation were able to still feel emotions such as joy, fear, and anger.
Cannon was an experimenter who relied on studies of animal physiology. For example, Lange cited one physician's observations that blood flow to the skull increased when a patient was angry, which he interpreted as supporting his idea that a physical response to a stimuli led to the experience of that emotion. The Cannon-Bard theory would fall under physiological theories because it suggests that our physiological reactions to certain situations are experienced simultaneously as the emotions of the given situation. The theory has been modified over time and competing such as the and Schacter's of emotion have also been introduced. The functions as a single unit. This theory posits that when you see a venomous snake in your backyard, you feel fear at exactly the same time that your body initiates its physiological fight-or-flight response. For example, if a person goes on a romantic date and perceives this date as positive, they might feel happiness, joy, giddiness, excitement, or anticipation because they have appraised this event as one that could have positive effects.
The emotional circuits in the limbic system are activated when an emotional stimulus is experienced, and these circuits quickly create corresponding physical reactions LeDoux, 2000. The viscera were attributed a major role by James. The Schachter-Singer Theory In the 1960s, Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer hypothesized that experiencing an emotion requires both body responses and an interpretation of the body's response by taking into consideration the situation the person is in at the time. This means our brain cannot just rely on our bodily responses to know which emotion they are experiencing. Psychologists have proposed three different theories of emotion, which differ in terms of the hypothesized role of arousal in emotion. Recently, the use of Botox to temporarily paralyze facial muscles has also provided strong experimental support for some kind of facial-feedback mechanism involved in emotion. Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer 1962 directly tested this prediction of the two-factor theory of emotion in a well-known experiment.
In other words, this theory proposes that people have a physiological response to environmental stimuli and that their interpretation of that physical response then results in an emotional experience. More specifically, this theory claims that physiological arousal is cognitively interpreted within the context of each situation, which ultimately produces the emotional experience. The theory states that emotion is not directly caused by the perception of an event, but rather by the bodily response caused by the event. According to the Schacter—Singer theory, emotion results from the interaction between two factors: physiological arousal and cognition. When this experiment was done, participants experienced no specific emotions. The men in the e pi n eph r i n e in f o r m e d condition were told the truth about the effects of the drug—they were told that they would likely experience tremors, their hands would start to shake, their hearts would start to pound, and their faces might get warm and flushed. The Cannon-Bard theory of emotion is one of many theories of emotion, and one of six significant theories.
So, what do other theories of emotion suggest? He outlined two ideas regarding the existence of two sources of cerebral processes of emotions. These emotional effects were no longer present when the optic was removed from the animals; thus, it was concluded that this region plays a significant role in the expression of emotions. The central question that the appraisal theory seeks to answer is why different people have different perceptions of and emotional reactions to the same situations. He postulated that if emotions were the result of impulses from the viscera, we could expect fear, rage, chilliness, asphyxia, and fever to feel similarly, which is not the case. Examples of the Cannon-Bard Theory in Action A young girl in her final months of high school has just received a letter from her top pick in colleges that she applied to. First, after the removal of the to the thalamus in animal test subjects, the animals continue to display rage-like emotional responses.
In other words, the act of smiling can itself actually make you feel happier. Of course, emotion is displayed not only through facial expression but also through tone of voice and behavior. People who view fearful faces show more amygdala activation than those who watch angry or joyful faces Whalen et al. In one interesting field study by Dutton and Aron 1974 , an attractive young woman approached individual young men as they crossed a wobbly, long suspension walkway hanging more than 200 feet above a river in British Columbia, Canada. The James—Lange theory of emotion, for instance, asserts that emotions arise from physiological arousal: in essence, that the self-perception of changes in the body produce emotional experiences. If we do not experience arousal or it is not noticed, we will not experience emotion. However, it was found that an emotional response may develop only when the adrenalin as injected subsequent to discussing with patients their sick children or their dead parents.
If you think back to a strong emotional experience, you might wonder about the order of the events that occurred. Havas, Glenberg, Gutowski, Lucarelli, and Davidson 2010 discovered that individuals with depression reported lessened depressive symptoms after paralysis of their frowning muscles with Botox injections. Rather than being euphoric, he acted angry. Smiling more frequently over a period of time can, in fact, make you feel happier. Emotional expression results from action of subcortical centers. The key component of the Cannon—Bard theory of emotion is that when the thalamic discharge occurs, the bodily changes occur almost simultaneously with the emotional experience. .
The main concepts of the Cannon—Bard theory are that emotional expression results from the function of , and emotional feeling results from stimulations of the dorsal thalamus. For example, pin pricks, painful pressure, and excessive heat or cold all cause more distress on the damaged side of the body as compared to the normal side. In an attempt to objectively assess the facial feedback hypothesis, Strack, Martin, and Stepper 1988 devised an experiment that would hide their true goals from the participants. For example, in the case of the viscera, we are unaware of the contractions and relaxations of the digestive processes. So, for instance, if I see a poisonous snake, my heart would race and then I experience fear, and I run away.
The key component of the Cannon—Bard theory of emotion is that when the thalamic discharge occurs, the bodily changes occur almost simultaneously with the emotional experience. One of the most common scenarios given to explain this theory goes like this: A woman is walking in the woods when she comes across a wild bear. Even though they occur at the same time, your emotional reaction and your physiological reaction would be separate and independent. Participants were simply told that they were taking part in a study to determine the difficulty of accomplishing certain tasks for people who do not have the use of their hands or arms. This crushing weight deflates his mood as he slowly walks out of the room, assuring his boss that he will get it done right this time. There is also the , as proposed by and. Only after our interpretation of the arousal can we experience the fear.
The principle of exc itation transf e r refers to the phenomenon that occurs when people who are already experiencing arousal from one event tend to also experience unrelated emotions more strongly. I formerly taught at the University of West Alabama where I taught School Counseling and College Student Development Counseling. He wadded up spitballs, flew paper airplanes, and played with a hula-hoop. The label people give an emotion depends on what they find in their environment. Another issue with the theory is that when tested by applying electrical stimulation, applying stimulation to the same site does not lead to the same emotions every time. The decorticate cats, when provoked, exhibited the emotional behavior normally associated with rage and aggression, as demonstrated by erect hair, growling, and the baring of teeth Hayes, 2003. According to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, the ex p e ri e n c e of an e motion is a cc ompani e d b y ph y siologi c al arousal.