The 14-year-old couple left their wedding ball at midnight to perform their nuptial duties. Germain The signing of the Peace of St. Catherine brought her up with her own children at the French court, while Mary of Guise governed as her daughter's. During the four years of peace that followed, Catherine dominated government and worked hard to rebuild royal authority. The Massacre of : Reappraisals and Documents. As the fighting continued, especially in the third religious war, from 1568 to 1570, Huguenot armies attacked convents and monasteries, torturing and massacring their inhabitants, while Catholic forces, equally merciless, slew the Huguenots of several districts indiscriminately. An inventory drawn up at the Hôtel de la Reine after Catherine's death shows her to have been a keen collector.
For the next ten days, Henry's state fluctuated. On September 21, 1559 her eldest son Francis ascended the throne at the age of 15 and he gave his mother rights and power at court though he was deemed old enough to rule on his own. Prince Henry danced and for Catherine. But she already shows an incredible political acumen by allying herself with the most important people at court, first of all king Francis. This biography is a persuasive rehabilitation of Catherine, not as a nice woman, but as a shrewd leader who did what she had to. But well worth the time and I am absolutely more informed about history now.
This caused quite a commotion throughout France. For the moment, Catherine worked with the Guises out of necessity. The Wars of Religion in France 1559-1576. Poultices were applied to her genitals during love-making. After eight years bearing no children despite trying mightily, she gave birth to a son in 1544. Catherine's husband, now , had been cared for at age eleven by , who was twenty years his senior.
It includes links to other topics and people relevant to her era. In practice, her authority was always limited by the effects of the civil wars, and she fought a losing battle for control of a kingdom lapsing into chaos. Without Catherine, it is arguable that her sons would never have survived in power. The Massacre of St Bartholomew and the European Conflict, 1559—1572. She recalled her favorite, Henry, to take over as king. The events were quite exciting, and sometimes even scandalous, but the dry tone of the narration put them at a remove and made them read like a textbook.
In 1527, when Catherine was eight years old, the Medici palace in Florence was attacked by an angry mob of Florentines. She had great influence over her sons and is thought by some to have authorized the famous Massacre of St. The departure of Catherine's third son, Henry, to take over the throne of Poland prompted another Huguenot uprising. Married on 18 August 1572 and divorced on 17 December 1599. Married Elizabeth of Austria in 1570. Until her death in 1589, Catherine continued to enjoy influence during the reign of her favorite son, , who came to the throne in 1574, most notably brokering a peace with the Protestants in 1578 —1579 and attempting to reconcile her son with the rebel duke of Guise in 1585 and 1588.
Popular myth has long named her the Italian queen mother of France's high cuisine, for she is often presumed to have imported new notions of cooking as refined as the other civilized arts reborn in the Italian Renaissance of the fifteenth century. Charles, says the lively historian Henri Nogueres: had the figure of a sickly adolescent, too thin for its size, hollow-chested and with drooping shoulder…. Therefore, this made Henry a distant half-cousin of his son-in-law. Then to check and paralyze their power, she appointed Michel de l'Hôpital chancellor, a man whose wife and children were , and convoked an assembly of notables at Fontainebleau August, 1560 at which it was decided that the punishment of should be suspended, and that the States General, from which religious peace was looked for, were to meet at in December. She overcame such obstacles, managed to uphold the power of the monarchy, and protected the claims of the Valois dynasty. Her leader ability, Catherine's Flying Squadron, allows her to have 1 level of diplomatic visibility greater than normal with every civilization she has met and gives her the capacity to build an extra Spy when she researches. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
London and New York: Longman, 1998. Dovreste prestare attenzione a ciò che v'accade d'intorno. Catherine Medici, wife of a cheating king who dies after a large splinter enters his eye and mother of three kings of France, is best known for her involvement or lack of involvement it's a complicated situation, especially since all of her solutions were for the moment in the St. Therefore, from her father's side, Catherine had high ancestry. When Catherine tried to go to , she found her way barred, though she was allowed through the barricades.
Early life Catherine was born in 1519 to a powerful Italian prince from the Medici family. She presided over, and was partly responsible for, many of the horrors of the French in the 1560s and 1570s, of which the worst was the massacre of Protestants gathered in Paris to witness the marriage of her daughter Marguerite Valois to Duke Henry of Navarre in 1572. All of the names of the people back then were confusing to me and reading about all of the wars and executions were not something I relish. He was tried in November, found guilty of offenses against the crown, and sentenced to execution. This is a detailed account of the politics that led to Catherine becoming queen and what happened during her reign.