Your final conclusion should report the results of the project or experiment, hypothesis and whether it was supported by the findings, effectiveness of the procedure and suggest future studies. Extra Information optional Section Headings: Main Section Headings: Each main section of the paper begins with a heading which should be capitalized, centered at the beginning of the section, and double spaced from the lines above and below. Also, have a few people proof read your final report. For any other use, please contact Science Buddies. Length of the manuscript Again, look at the journal's Guide for Authors, but an ideal length for a manuscript is 25 to 40 pages, double spaced, including essential data only.
They are the label of your manuscript. Bibliography sections are found in books and other literary writing, but not scientific journal-style papers. Using first person can help emphasize a point or illustrate a contrasting finding. © Copyright LabWrite Project 2000 Sponsored and funded by LabWrite Project Team Michael Carter Ph. Most often it is not.
Then set about revising or adding words to make it all cohesive and clear. You should also indicate the used to analyze your results, including the probability level at which you determined significance usually at 0. After the title and abstract, it is generally accepted that the introduction and conclusion are the second most widely read part of any given report. The discussion section will talk about whether your hypothesis was supported by your experiment or not. Whatever your choice is, no illustrations should duplicate the information described elsewhere in the manuscript. Restatement of main findings Reflection about the results of the present research in light of findings reported the literature Comments and questions should be directed to. For example, many people skim to find out what information is available on a subject.
One guideline for staging the discussion is shown here based on extracts from the discussion in one of the cholesterol reports. The goal of your lab report is to be read and evaluated by another person, like your instructor. Next, write a section on your materials and methods that informs the reader how you did your work. Remember figures, tables, and graphs at the paragraph-level. Probably it is the easiest section to write, but the hardest section to get right. Remember that not every method is ideal for every science project. Do not discuss here the actual techniques or protocols used in your study this will be done in the ; your readers will be quite familiar with the usual techniques and approaches used in your field.
Methods If you were assigned to write a complete Methods section,. For example: Ducks Over-Winter in Colorado Barley Fields in Response to Increased Daily Mean Temperature Ima Mallard, Ura Drake, and Woodruff Ducque Department of Wildlife Biology, University of Colorado - Boulder The title is not a section, but it is necessary and important. If there is prior research to indicate this, you need to explain why it was significant or unanticipated. The turntable was rotated 90 degrees by hand. Write down what you hope to prove in your experiment. They will think you have no sense of purpose. Include the date s of the study e.
Anticipated results or successes Use a table or graph to clearly indicate differences. Even if your data has confirmed your hypothesis beyond your wildest expectations, the results section of your report should be objective. Ý The explanation might focus on the scientific reasoning that supported the original hypothesis based on the scientific concept on which the lab is founded and on changes to or errors in the experimental procedure and how they could have affected the outcomes. Long introductions put readers off. If your results are very different, why? Then put your sentences together in a block paragraph in the proper order: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion.
Revision of Results and Discussion is not just paper work. For instance, ask yourself whether you can get similar results if you perform the experiment or project again. Write down even if no changes happened at all. As such, the conclusion of your science project should be simple and plain answering the question that was asked at the beginning of the project. If your Abstract was the only part of the paper you could access, would you be happy with the information presented there? Your data are the driving force of the paper, so your illustrations are critical! The Method must be written in the past tense and the passive voice. The results of the experiments supported the hypothesis that the boiling point of pure or distilled water is 100 degrees Celsius. In still other cases, a reviewer can save you from making a critical error! Comment on their relative importance in relation to your overall interpretation of the results and, if necessary, note how they may affect the validity of your findings.
Abstract:Ý What is the essence of the report? However, when there is no connection between samples or there is not a gradient, you must use histograms Figure 5. Though not necessary, you can help your reviewer do the best job possible by providing him with a checklist of key points. This is especially important if you are working with a group on a lab. Ý The rule of thumb in constructing this section is to provide enough detail so that a competent scientist in the field can repeat, or replicate, the procedure. This is a list of the references that were cited in the lab report, including the lab manual, any handouts accompanying the lab, the textbook, and sources from the scientific literature.