In 1925, at the , Stalin, as he usually did in the early days, stayed in the background but sided with the Bukharin group. In view of this it is a prime duty of the organs of Soviet power to wage a determined struggle against those who steal public property. Here are the generally known official data. It is said that collective farms and state farms do not always yield a profit, that they eat up an enormous amount of funds, that there is no sense in maintaining such enterprises, that it would be more expedient to dissolve them, leaving only those that do yield a profit. In order to make these achievements possible, the rate of investment was expected to rise from 7% of the national income in 1955-56 to 11% in 1960-61, assuming that the rate of population growth would remain stationary at 1. On the contrary, a great deal has been done.
This is how it works out, comrades. Later on, when it began to be evident that the fulfilment of the five-year plan was producing real results, they began to sound the alarm, asserting that the five-year plan was threatening the existence of the capitalist countries, that its fulfilment would lead to the flooding of European markets with goods, to intensified dumping and the increase of unemployment. Consideration of the fact that the Soviet regime could not for long rest upon two opposite foundations: on large-scale socialist industry, which destroys the capitalist elements, and on small, individual peasant farming, which engenders capitalist elements. When the plan was initially proposed it was instantly rejected as being too modest. That is the essence of the principal achievements of the five-year plan in improving the material conditions of the workers and peasants.
The Second Plan, 1933—1937 Because of the success of the first plan, the government went ahead with the Second Five-Year Plan in 1932, although the official start-date for the plan was 1933. New York: The Overlook Press. However, there is some speculation regarding the legitimacy of these numbers as the nature of Soviet statistics are notoriously misleading or exaggerated. The population growth rate was more than 2% per annum during the plan period. This Model suggested that there should be an emphasis on the heavy industries, which can lead the Indian Economy to a long term higher growth path.
These resources were also put into equipment that was never used, or not even needed in the first place. Critical Assessment of Second Five Year Plan The second five year plan was a big leap forward and it laid a heavy emphasis on the heavy industries. And as a result of all this our country has been converted from an agrarian into an industrial country; for the proportion of industrial output, as compared with agricultural output, has risen from 48 per cent of the total in the beginning of the five-year plan period 1928 to 70 per cent at the end of the fourth year of the five-year plan period 1932. . In the field of chemical industries, there was an advance on a wide front, leading not only to larger units and greatly increased output of basic chemicals, e.
In 1931-32 the sugar-beet sector was reorganized which also caused a temporary reduction. And among the population at large, communalism, casteism, linguism and other fissiparous tendencies were making headway. However oil only rose slightly and the production of steel was dormant. According to official figures, average monthly wages in the United States have been reduced by 35 per cent compared with 1928. The requisitioning of farm produce was replaced by a tax system a fixed proportion of the crop , and the peasants were free to sell their surplus at a state-regulated price - although they were encouraged to join state farms , set up on land expropriated from nobles after the , in which they worked for a fixed wage like workers in a factory.
The results of the five-year plan have refuted the assertion of the bourgeois and Social-Democratic leaders that the five-year plan was a fantasy, delirium, an unrealisable dream. Tanks and armored cars were given priority over civilian vehicles. Disappointment, bitterness, and lack of enthusiasm were on the increase. Now it no longer happens in our country that hundreds of thousands and millions of peasants are ruined and hang around the gates of factories and mills. Mahalanobis Model: The 2nd year five year plan, functioned on the basis of Mahalanobis model. It is true that the output of goods for mass consumption was less than the amount required, and this creates certain difficulties.
As a result, targets set for Iron and steel, fertilizers, certain items of machinery, heavy castings and forgings, aluminium, newsprint, raw films, chemical pulp, Soda ash, Caustic soda , dyestuff and cement were not achieved. Capital construction investment in the five years would reach 385 billion yuan and major construction projects were to surpass 1,000. What could and actually did play the chief part in bringing it about that, despite mistakes and shortcomings, the Party has nevertheless achieved decisive successes in carrying out the five-year plan in four years? The disruption and repression associated with collectivization was a primary cause of the famine of 1932, which resulted in millions of deaths. In our country, in the U. Just think: in a matter of three years we have created more than 200,000 collective farms and about 5,000 state farms, i. This was said at the time when we were bringing to a close the war against the interventionists, when we were passing from the military struggle against capitalism to the struggle on the economic front, to the period of economic development. The growth rate of per capita income was low because of higher rate of population.
A major event during the first Five Year-Plan was the. This plan was a revolution that intended to transform all aspects of society. Officially the first five-year plan for industry was fulfilled to the extent of 93. Various measures were taken to expand the quantity and quality of educational and health facilities. We did not have an iron and steel industry, the basis for the industrialisation of the country.
Officially, 98,000 collective farms had been ransacked and ruined, with the loss of 137,000 tractors, 49,000 combine harvesters, 7 million horses, 17 million cattle, 20 million pigs, 27 million sheep; 25% of all capital equipment had been destroyed in 35,000 plants and factories; 6 million buildings, including 40,000 hospitals, in 70,666 villages and 4,710 towns 40% urban housing were destroyed, leaving 25 million homeless; about 40% of railway tracks had been destroyed; officially 7. Note that historians have found that Stalin's statisticians overstated the increases by about a third - they dared not do anything else! It guaranteed the security of the property of the private owner, of the individual peasant and of the capitalist, provided they strictly observed the Soviet laws. What should this have led to in relation to the capitalist elements; and what has it actually led to? Is it not clear after all this that, even if we desired to, we could not in the period of the Second Five-Year Plan, particularly during the first two or three years, pursue a policy of accelerating development to the utmost? However, the percentage share of social services came down from 28% to 18%. Now we must supplement that with enthusiasm and zeal for mastering the new factories and the new technical equipment, with a substantial rise in the productivity of labour, with a substantial reduction of production costs. Since Russia's economy had always lagged behind the rest of Europe, these increases appeared all the more dramatic. The task now is to strengthen the collective farms organisationally, to expel sabotaging elements from them, to recruit real, tried, Bolshevik cadres for the collective farms, and to make them really Bolshevik collective farms.
As a result of increased investment and economic development, national income rose by 20% as against the target of 25%. Such, in general terms, are the results of the five-year plan in four years in the sphere of industry. Bailed out from crisis to crisis, the planners became dependent, for the realisation of the Third plan targets, on even greater injections of external funds. This must be borne in mind. That is why it is one of the fundamental tasks of the Party to fight to protect public property, to fight with all the measures and all the means placed at our command by our Soviet laws. Other users included the Central Statistical Bureau, the Soviet Commissariat of Finance, , Soviet Commissariat of Foreign Trade, the Grain Trust, , Russian Ford, Russian Buick, the Karkov tractor factory, and the Tula Armament Works.