It uses a rank order procedure and the objects are sorted into piles based on similarity with respect to some criteria. Differential Scales: These scales used for the measurement of attitudes are closely associated with the name of L. Ratio scales often measure things like money, miles, height and weight where the answers describe how far the respondent is from zero. So next time its easy for us to find out which attitude we are possessing. This method of attitude measurement is not objective or scientific which is a big criticism.
Interpretations should be made with caution and the limitations of projective tests should be considered. Types of Attitude Scales : 1 Single item Scale 2 Multi-item Scales Single item scales are those with which only one item is measured. These scales are just numerical and are the least restrictive of all the scales. It must be noted that one's behavior might not always reflect one's attitude. Their attitude is composed of indifference and detachment.
This total score indicates his position on the continuum. In other figure drawing tests, interpersonal relationships are assessed by having the child draw a family or some other situation in which more than one person is present. For example: I believe that ecological questions are the most important issues facing human beings today. Source: Graphic rating scales are easy to create. Consider the following items, with which the respondents are asked to agree or disagree: 1 Co-education in the long run helps subsequent marital adjustments.
Researchers must develop valid and reliable adjective scales for each research project. Balanced scales have an equal number of positive and negative categories while unbalanced scales do not. Others are - Thurston and Guttman. An other striking element of their attitude is serene and unemotional type of posture which makes them very balanced. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Psychology.
The most widely used is the Likert Scale. Attitudes are primarily our response to people, places, things, or events in life. The affective component of attitude is powerful and difficult to control. Example: Rank the following smart phones with one being the brand that best meets the characteristic and six being the brand that is the worst on the characteristic. Rank-Order Scales: Unlike graphic rating scales and itemized rating scales, rank-order scales are comparative scales. Scales that requires respondents to rank an item result in a quantitative score. There are various problems that affect the of attitude scales.
Some figure drawing tests are primarily measures of cognitive abilities or cognitive development. Sometimes it is assumed somewhat synonymous to negative attitude because it is more destructive than the negative attitude. The method of equal-appearing intervals is most commonly used in the construction of this scale. It had been pointed out by a number of investigators that the Thurstone or Likert scales contain statement about various aspects of the characteristic under consideration and thus these statements belong in fact, to two or more different scales. Scaling refers to the process of assigning numbers or symbols to measure the intensity of abstract attitudes.
This scale is administered to a large group of subjects and their responses are analysed to determine which of the items discriminate most clearly between the high scorers and the low scorers on the total scale. These techniques attempt to identify the product attributes that are important to consumers and to measure their relative importance. Each of the judges is requested to place in the first pile the statements which he thinks are most unfavorable to the issue or, most progressive or most permissive, depending upon the dimension along which the statements are to be placed in the second pile, those he considers next most unfavorable and proceeding thus, in eleventh pile, the statements he considers most favourable. Neutral Attitude Such types of persons are very balanced in their approach. Generally it is constructed on a scale of 10 ranging from -5 to +5, without a neutral point zero. Consider the following questions : Q 1 What is your annual income before taxes? While a nominal scale may contain numbers arbitrarily, each number in an ordinal scale represents a rank of order.
The items with low discriminatory power or those that do not show a substantial correlation with the total score are eliminated to ensure that the questionnaire is internally consistent, that is, every item or statement is related to the same general attitude. A five-point purchase intent scale is widely used in new product development and advertising testing. For example, participants are given a word, for example 'car', and presented with a variety of adjectives to describe it. The scale discrimination technique developed by Edwards and Kilpatrick is a method of selecting a set of items likely to form a uni-dimensional scale. Statements that have too broad a scatter, that is, whose evaluation by different judges varies very widely, are discarded as ambiguous or irrelevant, d A final selection of statements is made, taking evaluated items or statements that spread out evenly along the scale from one extreme position to the other scale values like 10. His score will be 8. Qualitative research is used to help the researcher gain a deeper understanding of the constructs under investigation.
Instead of numbers, letters or symbols too can be used to rate in a ordinal scale. In some tests, the child's self-image is considered through the use of the drawings. Rati scale possess all he characteristics of an internal scale, and the ratios of the numbers on these scales have meaningful interpretations. Other tests involve personality interpretation through drawings of objects, such as a tree or a house, as well as people. Thus, all individuals who react to a given item favourably have higher scores on the total value scale than the individuals who react to that items unfavourably. Example: McDonald's Happy Meals are good value for the money.
In these tests, there is a consideration of how well a child draws and the content of a child's drawing. Neutral: Neither favourable nor unfavourable. Consequently, responses on attitude scales are not always 100% valid. Some tests are used for the evaluation of child abuse. It can be referred to as a person's viewpoint, mindset, beliefs, etc.